Education System of India

Education System in India: What can we change or do we need to change it? 

This question is not difficult to answer, No doubt we need to change our education system in India.

India plays an important global position when comes to education. It has one of the largest education institution networks in the world.

So globally India has an extensive network of schools with more than 1.4 million schools in which 200 million students have been enrolled.

Also, more than 850 recognized university 40,000 higher education institutes are expanding rapidly in respect of income level and growing demand for quality higher education in India. Further, India has the largest young population between age 3 to 23 which again explains the high addressable market sector with big opportunity to grab on.

In the Indian education sector, India has a mix of government and privately owned institutions. India has a huge number of young population which calls a big opportunity to grab on.

The Indian sector is highly influenced by government schemes and the initiative taken the government to improve the quality of education.

Literacy is one of the key reason for the socio-economic progress of our country. Currently India has a 76% of literacy rate in the world compared to 17% at the end of 1950, but still, India has one of the largest population of illiterate in the world.

Additionally, currently, most of the Indian graduate from institutes are not easily employable.

The education sector in India has witnessed a paradigm shift in recent times. So far, basic primary education and certain specific institute for higher education like, India Institute of Technology(IIT) and the India Institute of Management have been the prominent part of the Indian sector.

However, due to the increased in the competition, with the increased need to provide quality education and generate provide learning outcomes, Indian education slowly but steadily moving in the track.

Market Size

 According to the report, the Indian education sector is estimated to be around US dollar 91.7 billion in FY 2018 and is estimated to be US dollar 101 billion by the end of FY 2019.

As mentioned earlier has almost 40000 institutes in which36.64 million students enrolled for higher education in 2017-2018. The gross enrollment ration has been increased to 25.8% in the year 2017-2018.

Also, the country has the second largest e-learning market in the world after USA. The e-learning sector in India is expected to grow US dollar 1.96 billion by the end of 2021.

Recent Development and Trends in India

The total amount of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflow into the education sector in India stood at US$ 1.75 billion from April 2000 to June 2018, according to data released by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).

In recent time India has witnessed some major developments and invest in the education sector.

  • India education sector witnesses 18 mergers and deals worth US dollar 49 billion in 2017.
  • Indian education sector witnessed 18 merger and acquisition deals worth US$ 49 million in 2017.
  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is also planning to raise around Rs 1 lakh crore (US$ 15.52 billion) from private companies and high net worth individuals to finance improvement of education infrastructure in the country.
  • India has signed a loan agreement with the World Bank under ‘Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion’ (SANKALP) Project to enhance institutional mechanisms for skills development.
  • Singapore is going to open its first skill development centre in Assam, which will provide vocational training to youth in the region.

Government Achievements

Following are the achievements of the government in the past four years:

  • Under the mid-day meal scheme initiated by the Government of India, about 95 million students of around 1.14 million schools enjoy a fresh meal every day.
  • The Government has laid the foundation of 141 universities and 7 IITs in the past four years.
  • With an aim of promoting innovation and entrepreneurship among secondary school students in the country NITI Aayog, Government of India has launched the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM)In June 2018, 3,000 additional Atal Tinkering Labs were approved, taking the total number of labs to 5,441.

How Internet Learning Changing The World.

It is safe to say that education sector is heavily influcend by digital trend in India. With the internet and technology taking the place of everyday task so there is no expectation the education field too.

Online learning and distance learning is changing the education the way do in the past.

Both e-learning and distance learning are the factor of progress. Here are the few points to consider on how the new technology and never-ending internet helping us.

Personalized Learning At Their Own Pace

People can now learn anything at any time as on their time and preference. They can now set their own goals and targets and improve their skills to succeed in their career.

When online learning is being introduced in traditional classroom settings, the teachers can use the information they get to determine what students need more individual attention.

We’re Getting Valuable Data

Through online or e-learning we can measure better data and records as what’s working and what doesn’t for students and then plan accordingly. With access to such data, they can alter and improve the overall experience of the learners. That’s why the educational system is evolving at a faster rate than ever before.

Educational Technology Transforms the Way We Learn

Billions and billions of dollar are being invested every year. The e-learning industry supports the development of EdTech, which is being implemented in traditional education, too. 

Part-Time Studies On The Go Are More Effective

Online learning helping working professional and students for a part-time education while continuing their work on the go. They make take some classes on campus and some online, or they may opt for distant learning all the time.

M-Learning or Mobile Learning

The global mobile Internet traffic is projected to increase nearly a sevenfold between 2016-2021. Learning is going mobile, too. This brings more convenience for the students. They can access learning materials anytime, anywhere.

Online Learning Leads to Improved Collaboration

When the concept of distance learning was first introduced, it came with a major drawback: lack of collaboration between the students. But with time all things have changed. Today, online learning is not just learning but it’s a collaboration between technology and students. The learners can communicate with each other and get in touch with the providers of the course.

It Brings Fun in the Learning Process

Fun is an engaging element not only for kids but for adult learning, too. It makes learning fun, but effective at the same time. 

Online Learning Is getting Normal Learning Day By Day

The effectiveness of online educational programs is constantly growing. Research shows that today, massive open online courses can teach at least as effective as traditional courses set in a classroom. That changes everyone’s perception of online learning. 

Academic Projects Are Getting Easier

Students have always been struggling with their essays, research papers, and other projects. That’s why so many of them are relying on writing services like Aussie Writings in order to get help with these projects. The online learning industry is changing the approach towards written assignments. They are still present, but they are more practical and in a lower number. The learners are getting precise instructions on how to complete the assignments for an online course.

No Time Restrictions

Web-based learning comes with a huge advantage: the students are not restricted to specific timings. They can listen to a lecture in the middle of the night if that’s when they feel productive. They can catch up with the missed lectures during weekends if they have to work over the week. Thanks to online learning, they can fit the studying goals into their schedule, no matter how busy it is.

Everyone Has Access to Education

People are struggling to pay for higher education even in developed countries. Distance learning programs are changing that. They are much more affordable when compared to traditional college courses. In addition, the learners don’t have to pay for accommodation, books, and all other things related to traditional education. They can earn degrees from their homes at a much more affordable price.

Online Learning Imposes the Need for Self-Motivation

Online learning programs are already highly motivational. The participants are constantly getting email messages and prompts that push them to go on. However, they also have to work on their own organizational skills. That’s why they use various to-do apps and distraction-blocking browser extensions. Successful online learners are developing strong time-management skills.

Educational Institutions Are Changing

The most eminent universities on a global level are getting into online education. They are recording and broadcasting their classes, so more people will have access to them. They are reaching a wider audience, but they are also transforming the educational processes to attract more distant learners.

Free Learning Opportunities!

Many universities are providing free access to online education. Even Stanford, one of the most expensive educational institutions in the USA, makes free online education possible. Most free programs don’t include certificates, but they still enable people to learn. That’s what matters the most.

It’s Easier for Students to Decide What They Want to Study                                               

Since everyone can access free and affordable online learning programs, it’s easier for students to decide where they want to go to college and what major they want to choose. They usually start exploring these programs during high school, so they are ready to handle the college application process with greater confidence and determination.

Top 10 Online E-Learning Platforms


Lynda is a popular educational hub for professionals looking to learn new skills related to business, creativity, and technology. Courses fall under categories like animation, audio/music, business, design, development, marketing, photography, video and more.

When you sign up with Lynda, you get a 30-day free trial and then you’ll be charged either $20 a month for a basic membership or $30 for a premium membership. If you ever want to deactivate your membership and then come back at a later time, Lynda has a “reactivate” feature that restores all your account information including all your course history and progress.


Udemy is the online education site that tops this list for being such an incredibly popular and valuable resource. You can search through over 55,000 courses in all sorts of different topics and download the Udemy app to take your learning mobile for quick lessons and study sessions when you’re on the go.

Udemy courses aren’t free, but they start as low as $12. If you’re an expert looking to create and launch a course of your own, you can also become an instructor with Udemy and take advantage of their massive user base to attract students.


If you’re looking to take courses from over 140 of the country’s top universities and organizations, then Coursera is for you. Coursera has partnered up with the University of Pennsylvania, Stanford University, the University of Michigan and others to offer universal access to the world’s best education.

You can find over 2,000 paid and unpaid courses in over 180 fields related to computer science, business, social sciences and more. Coursera also has mobile apps available so you can learn at your own pace.

Open Culture

If you’re on a budget but still looking for top quality education content, check out Open Culture’s library of 1,300 courses with over 45,000 hours of audio and video lectures that are totally free. You’ll have to spend a bit of time scrolling down through the single page that includes all 1,300 course links, but at least they’re all organized by category in alphabetical order.

Many of the courses available on Open Culture are from leading institutions from around the world including Yale, Stanford, MIT, Harvard, Berkley, and others. Audiobooks, ebooks, and certificate courses are also available.


Similarly to Coursera, edX offers access to higher education from over 90 of the world’s leading educational institutions including Harvard, MIT, Berkley, the University of Maryland, the University of Queensland and others. Founded and governed by colleges and universities, edX is the only open source and nonprofit MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) leader.

Find courses in computer science, language, psychology, engineering, biology, marketing or any other field you’re interested in. Use it for high school level eduction or to earn a credit for university. You’ll receive an official credential from the institution signed by the instructor to verify your achievement.


Envato’s Tuts+ is for those who work and play in creative technology. In addition to its vast library of how-to tutorials, courses are available in design, illustration, code, web design, photography, video, business, music, audio,

Tuts+ has more than 22,000 tutorials and over 870 video courses, with new courses being added every single week. Unfortunately, there’s no free trial, but the membership is affordable at just $29 a month.


Dedicated to bringing higher education to the world in the accessible, affordable and effective ways possible, Udacity offers both online courses and credentials that teach students the skills that are currently in demand by industry employers. They claim to offer their education at a fraction of the cost of traditional schooling.

This is an excellent platform to look into if you’re planning on working in technology. With courses and credentials in Android, iOS, data science, software engineering, and web development, you can be sure to get access to the most up to date education in these innovative areas that are relevant to today’s tech companies and startups.


With 10 million students from across the world, ALISON is an online learning resource that offers free, high-quality courses, education services, and community support. Their resources are designed for absolutely anyone looking for a new job, promotion, college placement or business venture.

Choose from a variety of subjects to pick from over 800 free courses designed to provide you with certificate and diploma level education. You’ll also be required to take assessments and score at least 80% to pass, so you know you’ll have the skills to move forward.


OpenLearn is designed to give users free access to educational materials from, which originally launched back in the 90s as a way to offer online learning in broadcast collaborations with the BBC. Today, OpenLearn offers both topical and interactive content in a variety of content formats, including courses.

You can filter the free courses by activity, format (audio or video), subject and more options. All courses are listed with their level (introductory, intermediate, etc.) and time length to give you an idea of what you can expect.

This is another e-learning site especially for Indian competitive exams, where you can access all the data and online materials for government jobs related exams. If you are preparing for SSC, railways, banking and all other competitive exams then you should visit this site.

Major Challenges faced by Indian Education System.

Amidst all the commotion about the focus on the agriculture sector and the seeming neglect of the middle classes, education did manage to get some attention of the Finance Minister this year.

To enhance the quality of higher education in India, the government plans to launch the ‘‘Revitalising Infrastructure and Systems in Education (RISE)” with a total investment of 1,00,000 crore in next four years.

The focus is on stepping up investments in research and related infrastructure in premier educational institutions in the country. The RISE initiative will be funded by a restructured Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA).

Launching of the ‘‘Prime Minister’s Research Fellows (PMRF)’’ Scheme for 1,000 best BTech students each year from premier institutions being provided facilities to do Ph.D. in IITs and IISc is also a welcome step to enhance the quality of technical research in the country.

It was satisfying to see some attention being given to the quality of teaching in India with an integrated BEd programme for teachers being planned and amending of the Right to Education Act to enable more than 13 lakh, untrained teachers, to get trained.

At the level of primary education level, the government is proposing Ekalavya model residential schools on the lines of Navodaya schools for every block with more than 50% ST population and at least 20,000 tribal persons.

The government has been highlighting the woeful state of education in the country for some time now.

Last October, stressing on the need for universities to give more emphasis on “learning and innovation” and give up old teaching methods which focused on “cramming students’ minds with information,”

Prime Minister Narendra Modi had underscored his government’s intention to ‘unshackle’ these institutions and provide ₹10,000 crore to 20 varsities to ensure that they are counted among the best in the world. Around one hundred institutions have applied for this process to be placed in the list of 20 “Institutions of Eminence.”

While these are noble goals, it is instructive to point out that the focus seems large to be on quantity and on science and technology education.

This is understandable for a number of reasons. Knowledge is the key variable that will define the global distribution of power in the 21st century and India has also embarked on a path of economic success relying on its high-tech industries.

While India’s nearest competitor, China is re-orienting and investing in higher education to meet the challenges of the future.

India continues to ignore the problem as if the absence of world-class research in Indian universities is something that will rectify itself on its own. True, India produces well-trained engineers and managers from its flagship IITs and IIMs, but their numbers are simply not enough. There is also a growing concern that while private engineering and management institutions are flourishing due to a rising demand, the students they produce are not of the quality that can help India compete effectively in the global marketplace.

India has the third largest higher education system in the world and is behind only the US and China in this area. Our higher educational institutions churn out around 2.5 million graduates every year.

However, this caters to just about 10 percent of India’s youth and the quality of this output is considered below par.

Apart from our premier institutions — the IITs, IIMs, AIIMS, the Indian Institute of Science, and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, to name a few — our higher education sector is increasingly incapable of meeting the rising expectations of an emerging India.

Indian universities, which should have been the center of cutting edge research and a hub of intellectual activity, are more often in the news for political machinations than for research excellence.

Years of low investment in higher education along with a mistaken belief that providing uniform support to all universities irrespective of their quality have led to a situation where neither our academics nor our students have any incentive to undertake cutting-edge research.

Matters have not been helped by the institutions we have created to administer our system of higher education. For instance, the UGC has tried to increase its control over the Indian higher education system, making it impossible for universities to shape their own courses and determine their research agenda.

This top-down approach in the mistaken belief that homogenization of institutions will produce greater pedagogic creativity leaves no room for competition among higher education institutions.

Indian universities have become moribund institutions run by cloistered, change-resistant bureaucracies where curricula are not updated for years, teaching methods remain obsolete, and students are not exposed to cutting edge research and ideas.

Political interference in selections, appointments and day-to-day administration of universities has become common, eroding autonomy to such an extent that a university is now considered a sort of government department.

Our universities are being held hostage to the imperatives of identity politics, encouraging parochialism rather than countering it. Indian universities are seen today to be serving every conceivable social, political and economic purpose except the one that they were designed for: the cultivation of the intellect.

Unless we recognize this and empower our students and faculty, we will continue to tinker with the superficialities while the foundations of India’s education system will continue to get eroded​.

Top Indian Education Problems That Can Be Solved.

Every year, new schools and colleges are being opened in almost all cities in India, but quality education is still a long-awaited dream for millions of Indian students. In this article, we will bring your attention to the problems and difficulties prevailing in the education system in this country:

  →No practical knowledge:

In schools and colleges, lots of attention is given to theory and books and practical knowledge is completely ignored. When these students pass the exam, they forget all the things they have studied due of lack of practical experience.  In India, parents and teachers expect their students to score high in the exam (rather than acquiring the quality knowledge) and thus the education becomes a rat race.  Practical knowledge and skill-based education are still far away from the reach of students studying in schools, colleges, and universities.

→Lack of Research or critical analysis:

Problems solving skills are one of the most important things that are required when students complete their studies and look for jobs to earn money and build up their career.  This can be learned by participating in problem-solving projects with the use of creative and critical thinking.  In India, despite the fact that we have the highest number of engineering graduates, still, we lack technological innovation.  Students must have the capability to solve the problems and difficulties that the country is facing today.  Most of the students don’t have their own approach towards any problem and they do so only on the instruction of their parents, teachers, neighbors, and friends.  Schools and colleges must pay attention to case studies, research-based assignment, and problem-solving project so that students can get fresh ideas about their surroundings and can easily solve the problem they face.

→Absence of personality development program:

Schools and colleges in India demand student’s performance in terms of marks and they are not well exposed to the external world.  When students complete their graduation and entry into the job market, they face problems to get a job as per their capability simply because they don’t meet the criteria and skills required for the job.  Companies want to hire those individuals that are aware of the course of the action. It is highly essential to start a personality development program is schools and colleges to improve the education standards.

→Absence of Entrepreneurship development scheme:

The majority of the students want to get a job after finishing their education. They don’t like starting their own business because they are of the view that they can’t become a business person and face the challenges during the circulation of their business. The absence of Entrepreneurship abilities is halting the progress of our country in several fields.  Our education system should be such that it should generate enthusiasm to become a business person and it should also produce scientist, writers, thinkers, designers etc only that India can be knowledge-based economy and claim to be regarded as a superpower.

→ Cast reservation and paid seat:

In the Indian education system, seats are reserved for reserved cast and rich students. The education system should give equal chance to all students irrespective of their cast and creed.  In India, the child of good a rich family gets a good education just because of ample money whereas the child of a poor family hardly gets the primary education.  The government data disclose the better reality that only one child out of 7(that takes birth in India) goes to school. This problem should be taken into notice as soon as possible and do some serious work to change the situation as soon as possible.

 →Outdated syllabus:

There is an urgent need to change the present system of higher education in the country. We need to ensure quality in education as well as quantity. Students are getting knowledge from the outdated syllabus. Lots of technological and scientific improvements are taking place in India and therefore the courses are Graduate and postgraduates must be updated as per the industrial and technological development.

→Other problems:

1) Expenditure in our universities are as high as 50%

2) Many schools and colleges use foreign languages as the medium of instruction which hampers the natural educational growth of millions of students who are not at home in foreign languages

3) Too much importance to examination and Political interference in schools and colleges

4) The rapid increase of irrelevant college and universities and

5) Absence of library, laboratory and other facilities in schools and colleges.

Road Ahead

In 2030, it is estimated that India’s higher education will:

  • Adopt transformative and innovative approaches in Higher education.
  • Have an augmented Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 50 percent
  • Reduce state-wise, gender-based and social disparity in GER to 5 percent.
  • Emerge as a single largest provider of global talent, with one in four graduates in the world being a product of the Indian higher education system.
  • Be among the top five countries in the world in terms of research output with an annual R&D spent of US$ 140 billion.
  • Have more than 20 universities among the global top 200.

Various government initiatives are being adopted to boost the growth of distance education market, besides focusing on new education techniques, such as E-learning and Mobile-learning.

Education sector has seen a host of reforms and improved financial outlays in recent years that could possibly transform the country into a knowledge haven. With human resource increasingly gaining significance in the overall development of the country, development of education infrastructure is expected to remain the key focus in the current decade. In this scenario, infrastructure investment in the education sector is likely to see a considerable increase in the current decade

Moreover, availability of English speaking tech-educated talent, democratic governance and a strong legal and intellectual property protection framework are enablers for world class product development, as per Mr Amit Phadnis, President-Engineering and Site Leader for Cisco (India).